What you have to know about PCB copper clad laminates

What is PCB copper clad laminate?

I often hear circuit board manufacturers mention PCB copper clad laminate. What exactly is PCB copper clad laminate? Don’t worry,I will help you understand PCB copper clad laminates. PCB copper clad laminate refers to coating a layer of copper foil on the surface of the base material of PCB circuit board. This layer of copper foil provides the electrical conductivity required for circuit design while also protecting the substrate.

use:

1. Provide electrical connections: As the basic material of printed circuit boards, the copper foil on the copper-clad board provides electrical connections through structures such as wires and pads, so that electronic components can work normally.
2. Provide ground and power planes: Copper foil can be used to establish ground and power planes on circuit boards, providing stable power distribution and shielding effects, reducing interference and noise.
3. Provide signal layers: By stacking copper foil on different layers, copper-clad laminates can provide multiple signal layers, making the design and wiring of complex circuits more flexible and efficient.
4. Heat dissipation effect: Copper has good thermal conductivity. Covering it with copper foil can help dissipate heat and maintain the normal operating temperature of electronic components.

advantage:

1. Mechanical strength: As the base material of printed circuit boards, copper-clad laminates have high mechanical strength and can withstand stress and impact during assembly, installation and transportation.
2. Welding performance: Copper foil-covered printed circuit boards have good welding performance and are easy to install and weld components through surface mount technology (SMT).
3. Reliability: Copper-clad laminates can provide stable electrical connections and signal transmission, with lower impedance, noise and interference, thereby improving the reliability and performance of electronic products.
4. Mature manufacturing process: Copper clad laminate is one of the widely used standard printed circuit board materials. The manufacturing process is mature, the production efficiency is high, and large-scale production can be achieved.

PCB copper clad laminate plays an important role in electronic products. Its advantages include good electrical properties, mechanical strength, welding performance and reliability, making it an indispensable part of modern electronic equipment.

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Five common methods for designing and making PCB copper-clad boards

PCB board is one of the most common basic components in the electronics industry. The design of its copper clad layer has a crucial impact on the performance of PCB. In the PCB design and production process, the design of the copper clad layer is a link that cannot be ignored. Next, Shenzhen PCBA manufacturer will introduce the method of PCB copper pouring design to help you easily understand and master the skills of PCB copper pouring design.
Basic principles of PCB copper pouring design

1. Sufficient copper area

Copper covering area is an important indicator of PCB board performance. In PCB design, in order to ensure the electrical performance of the circuit board, it is necessary to have sufficient copper area to ensure signal transmission and the heat dissipation capacity of the circuit board. Generally speaking, the copper area of the PCB board should be greater than 30% of the circuit board area.

2. Good grounding design

The grounding design of PCB board is very important. In PCB design, it is necessary to set up the ground wire appropriately and connect the ground wires of all circuit boards to the same ground point. This can effectively reduce electromagnetic interference and improve the anti-interference ability of the circuit board.

3. Proper tracking width and gap

The tracking width and gap of the PCB board are also important factors affecting PCB performance. Generally speaking, the trace width should be determined based on the board’s current and voltage, and the trace gap should be large enough to avoid electrical interference between traces.

Specific steps for PCB copper pouring design

1. Determine the number and location of copper clad layers

In PCB design, the number and location of copper clad layers need to be determined according to the requirements of the circuit board. Generally speaking, the copper clad layer of PCB board is divided into two types: inner layer and outer layer. The inner copper layer is used for signal transmission, and the outer copper layer is used for heat dissipation and grounding.

2. Draw the pattern of the copper clad layer

After determining the number and location of the copper cladding layers, you need to use PCB design software to draw the copper cladding layers. During the drawing process, attention needs to be paid to the accuracy and standardization of the drawing to ensure the integrity and stability of the copper clad layer.

3. Set up grounding and power supply

In PCB design, grounding and power supply need to be set. Grounding and power supply are the core of the circuit board and need to be properly set up to ensure the electrical performance and reliability of the circuit board.

4. Determine tracking width and gap

In PCB design, the trace width and gap need to be determined based on the current and voltage of the circuit board. Trace width and gap settings need to consider the electrical and mechanical properties of the board.

5. Optimize PCB performance

In PCB design, the performance of PCB needs to be optimized. Optimizing PCB performance can be achieved by increasing the copper area, rational layout, and setting impedance control.

Summarize

PCB copper pouring design is an important part of PCB design, and its design quality is directly related to the performance and reliability of the circuit board. During the PCB design process, it is necessary to follow basic principles and reasonably set the number and position of copper clad layers while ensuring the accuracy and standardization of tracking width and gaps. By optimizing the PCB, the performance and reliability of the PCB can be further improved.

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How to solve the problem of PCB circuit board copper-clad laminate

It is impossible to manufacture any number of PCB circuit boards without running into some problems, and this is mainly due to the material of PCB copper clad laminate. When quality problems occur during the actual manufacturing process, it seems that the PCB substrate material is often the cause of the problem. Even a carefully written and implemented PCB laminate technical specification does not specify the testing items that must be performed to determine that the PCB laminate is the cause of the manufacturing process problem. Here are some of the most commonly encountered PCB laminate problems and how to identify them.

Once you encounter PCB laminate issues, you should consider adding them to the PCB laminate material specifications. Often, failure to flesh out this technical specification results in constant quality variations and consequent product scrapping. Typically, material issues arising from variations in PCB laminate quality occur when manufacturers use different batches of raw materials or products manufactured with different pressing loads. Few users hold sufficient records to enable them to identify specific pressing loads or batches of material at a processing site. As a result, it often happens that PCBs are continuously produced and loaded with components, and warpage is continuously generated in the solder bath, thus wasting a lot of labor and expensive components. If the loading batch number can be checked immediately, the PCB laminate manufacturer can check the batch number of the resin, the batch number of the copper foil, the curing cycle, etc. In other words, if the user cannot provide continuity with the PCB laminate manufacturer’s quality control system, the user itself will suffer long-term losses. The following introduces the general issues related to substrate materials in the PCB circuit board manufacturing process.

PCB circuit board copper clad laminate problem 2: Surface problem

Symptoms: poor adhesion of the printing material, poor adhesion of the coating, some parts cannot be etched away, and some parts cannot be soldered.

Inspection methods that can be used: Visual inspection is usually used to form visible water patterns on the surface of the board:

possible reason:

The uncoated surface is excessively bright due to the very dense and smooth surface caused by the release film.

Often the laminate manufacturer does not remove the release agent from the uncoppered side of the laminate.

Pinholes in the copper foil, causing resin to bleed out and accumulate on the surface of the foil, usually on foils thinner than the 3/4 ounce weight specification.

Copper foil manufacturers apply an excessive amount of antioxidants to the surface of the copper foil.

Laminate manufacturers changed resin systems, release sheets, or brushing methods.

There are a lot of fingerprints or oil stains due to improper operation.

Contamination with machine oil during punching, blanking or drilling operations.

Possible solutions:

Work with the laminate manufacturer and define user test items before making any changes in laminate manufacturing.

It is recommended that laminate fabricators use fabric-like films or other release materials.

Contact the laminate manufacturer to inspect each batch of copper foil for failure; ask for recommended solutions for resin removal.

Ask the laminate manufacturer for removal instructions. It is usually recommended to use hydrochloric acid, followed by mechanical brushing to remove it.

Contact the laminate manufacturer to use mechanical or chemical removal methods.

Educate all process personnel to wear gloves when handling copper clad laminates. Make sure that the laminate is shipped with appropriate paper or bags, that the paper has low sulfur content, that the packaging bag is free of dirt, and that no one comes into contact with silicone-containing detergents. copper foil.

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