What is a printed circuit board? What are the functions of a printed circuit board?

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are convenient thin sheets used to house interconnected electrical components in a simple, convenient and economical manner. They are used as physical supports for mounting and connecting different electrical components.

PCB is made of fiberglass, composite epoxy or any other composite material with a metal coated surface. They feature etchings made using metals and acids to create circuits that pass through different integrated circuits (ICs) and other components on the circuit board. Solder connects ICs and other components to the circuit board surface. Copper tracks in the circuit board reduce the possibility of shorts, misaligned or misaligned wires.

This way, all components are securely fastened to the circuit board, eliminating the need for complex wiring systems and unnecessary expense. This also simplifies the process of maintaining the PCB to your needs – no need to deal with tons of wires.

However, not all electrical applications use standard PCBs. In fact, they vary based on the size, shape, and functionality of the electronic device. For example, the type of PCB used in smart watches is different from the type of PCB used in TVs.

Designing a complex circuit is one aspect of the challenge, and translating the circuit design into a PCB design is another. This design must translate well into physical form so that the required circuitry can be formed. A perfect PCB design is always the key to success in the manufacturing process, while a poorly designed PCB leads to wasted time and effort, rework and product failure. Worse, it may end up being useless and the results may not be relevant to real-world scenarios.

Therefore, a PCB designer must have good knowledge of the manufacturing process in addition to knowledge of positioning hundreds or thousands of components and traces that meet physical and electrical requirements.A well designed high frequency PCB ( printed circuit board RF PCB) can provide a significant boost,As the RF PCB can improve a product’s performance, stability and reliability.

PCB designers must follow Design for Assembly (DFA) related standards when designing PCBs. These criteria refer to the cost and efficiency of the product and to providing minimum risk, clarity and simplicity. Even assembler capabilities are important to the overall picture of getting DFA.

Substrate material fr4 is commonly used to create normal and complex PCB designs, while polyamide material is used for high-speed RF capable designs. When deciding on substrate material selection, designers must have a strong understanding of the environmental conditions that the PCB assembly will be able to withstand.

Complex PCB designs may have some special assembly requirements such as mechanical component assembly, press fittings, adhesives, wiring harnesses, housing components, wiring harnesses and test points. Therefore, the designer must consider all these factors to be able to organize the placement details of components accordingly.

Complex PCB design requires some additional complex processes, including via-in-pad, wire soldering, wave soldering, on-board IC programming, conformal coating, surface treatment, etc. These requirements do not apply to general PCB designs.

The design concepts are the same for all PCB design processes, but for high-speed RF capabilities they differ because these designs must account for resistance, inductance, and capacitance, as well as traces that affect the number of signal increases and impedance thereby limiting the upper frequency and medium.

Likewise, PCB design rules for wave soldering processes also differ in the design of component orientation and pad shape. Getting the pad shape correct is a primary concern for fine pitch surface mount parts, while shading is a primary concern for part positioning.

The reason why double sided PCBs are created is because the placement of complex components like BGA, CSP, QFP, DFN POP on the top does not come into direct contact with the waves. If this is unavoidable, then the package should be rotated 45 degrees relative to the direction of wave propagation.

Standards and specifications regarding PCB design performance and accessibility include IPC-2221, ipc-6011, and IPC-6012. Many PCB design software applications (PCB Layout SW) are available as windows-based software packages, such as CAD SOFT, Eagle PCB, Novarm’s DipTrace, etc.

Benefiting from the transfer of global PCB production capacity to the mainland and the booming downstream manufacturing of electronic terminal products, the overall PCB market in mainland China is showing a rapid development trend. From 2014 to 2019, the PCB output value in mainland China has generally shown a steady upward trend. Since 2019, Sino-US economic and trade frictions have intensified, economic uncertainty has increased, and the PCB industry has fluctuated in the short term, but the medium and long-term growth trend is still relatively certain. According to Prismark, the overall size of China’s PCB industry market will grow to US$42 billion by 2025.

Rogers rt duroid 5870 PCB

Rogers rt duroid 5870 PCB

PCB has the following functions in electronic equipment.

(1) Provide mechanical support for fixing and assembling various electronic components such as integrated circuits, realize wiring and electrical connection or electrical insulation between various electronic components such as integrated circuits, and provide required electrical characteristics.

(2) Provide solder mask graphics for automatic welding, and provide identification characters and graphics for component insertion, inspection, and maintenance.

(3) After electronic equipment uses printed boards, due to the consistency of similar printed boards, manual wiring errors are avoided, and automatic insertion or mounting, automatic soldering, and automatic detection of electronic components can be realized, ensuring the safety of electronic products. The quality is improved, labor productivity is improved, costs are reduced, and maintenance is facilitated.

(4) Provide the required electrical characteristics, characteristic impedance and electromagnetic compatibility characteristics for circuits in high-speed or high-frequency circuits.

(5) The printed board with passive components embedded inside provides certain electrical functions, simplifies the electronic installation procedure, and improves the reliability of the product.

(6) In large-scale and ultra-large-scale electronic packaging components, it provides an effective chip carrier for miniaturized chip packaging of electronic components


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